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PLoS One. 2008 Apr 2;3(4):e1915. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001915.

Toll-like receptor ligands induce human T cell activation and death, a model for HIV pathogenesis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recently, heightened systemic translocation of microbial products was found in persons with chronic HIV infection and this was linked to immune activation and CD4(+) T cell homeostasis.

METHODOLOGY:

We examined here the effects of microbial Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands on T cell activation in vitro.

CONCLUSIONS/FINDINGS:

We show that exposure to TLR ligands results in activation of memory and effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. After exposure to each of 8 different ligands that activate TLRs 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9, CD8(+) T cells are activated and gain expression of the C type lectin CD69 that may promote their retention in lymphoid tissues. In contrast, CD4(+) T cells rarely increase CD69 expression but instead enter cell cycle. Despite activation and cell cycle entry, CD4(+) T cells divide poorly and instead, disproportionately undergo activation-induced cell death. Systemic exposure to TLR agonists may therefore increase immune activation, effector cell sequestration in lymphoid tissues and T cell turnover. These events may contribute to the pathogenesis of immune dysfunction and CD4+ T cell losses in chronic infection with the human immunodeficiency virus.

PMID:
18382686
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2271052
Free PMC Article

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