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J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3403-8. doi: 10.1021/jf703567t. Epub 2008 Apr 2.

Surfactant protein of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor family inhibits transglutaminase activation in Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.


Transglutaminase (TGase) is widely used in the food industry for improving protein properties by catalyzing the cross-linking of proteins. In Streptomyces, TGase is secreted as a zymogen, and an activation process has been observed in liquid culture. However, the activation mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the TGase activation process in Streptomyces hygroscopicus was investigated by biochemical approaches. In a liquid culture, Pro-TGase was secreted and gradually was converted into active TGase during the growth period; however, in a cell-free system in which cells were removed from the liquid culture, TGase activation stalled unexpectedly. Subsequently, the TGase activation process was found to be inhibited by a TGase-activating protease inhibitor (TAPI). N-Terminal amino acid sequencing and a homology search of the purified TAPI revealed that it is a member of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) family. Furthermore, it was found that TAPI (0.1 mg/mL) decreased the surface tension of water from 72 to 60 mJ/m2 within 5 min, suggesting that it possesses surface activity. This is the first report that an SSI member functions as a surfactant protein. On the basis of these findings, a model for TAPI-regulated TGase activation process was proposed. This study provides novel insights into the TGase activation process in Streptomyces.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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