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J Holist Nurs. 2008 Jun;26(2):109-16. doi: 10.1177/0898010107311276. Epub 2008 Mar 20.

A spiritually based group intervention for combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: feasibility study.

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  • 1VA San Diego Healthcare System and San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92161, USA. jill.bormann@va.gov



To assess the feasibility, effect sizes, and satisfaction of mantram repetition -- the spiritual practice of repeating a sacred word/phrase throughout the day -- for managing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans.


A two group (intervention vs. control) by two time (pre- and postintervention) experimental design was used.


Veterans were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 14) or delayed-treatment control (n = 15). Measures were PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, quality of life, and patient satisfaction. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d.


Thirty-three male veterans were enrolled, and 29 (88%) completed the study. Large effect sizes were found for reducing PTSD symptom severity (d = -.72), psychological distress (d = -.73) and increasing quality of life (d = -.70).


A spiritual program was found to be feasible for veterans with PTSD. They reported moderate to high satisfaction. Effect sizes show promise for symptom improvement but more research is needed.

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