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Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Mar;10(3):417-21. doi: 10.1080/14622200801901880.

Nicotine delivery, cardiovascular profile, and subjective effects of an oral tobacco product for smokers.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0205, USA.


The tobacco industry markets potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) to smokers, including oral products that are intended to be used in situations where cigarettes cannot. For example, Ariva, marketed by Star Scientific, is a tablet made from compressed tobacco powder and is intended for "adult smokers in situations where they cannot or choose not to smoke." No objective data are available regarding Ariva's effects in smokers, including its nicotine delivery, cardiovascular profile, or subjective effects. In this single-session, clinical laboratory study, 10 overnight-abstinent cigarette smokers were administered one Ariva tablet, followed 90 min later by two Ariva tablets, followed 90 min later by three Ariva tablets. Participants allowed each dose to dissolve in their mouths according to package instructions. Blood was sampled, heart rate monitored, and subjective effects assessed regularly. Ariva delivered nicotine in a dose-dependent manner; mean (SD) nicotine levels increased from 2.4 ng/ml (0.9) at baseline, to 3.4 ng/ml (1.4) 45 min post-1 tablet, 7.3 ng/ml (4.0) 45 min post-2 tablets, and 9.7 ng/ml (4.4) 45 min post-3 tablets. Heart rate increased after tablet administration, independent of dose. The tablets also significantly decreased subjective ratings of craving and urge, and increased ratings of nausea. Based on this short-term laboratory evaluation, Ariva exposes users to nicotine and may suppress some symptoms of tobacco abstinence, though its nausea-inducing characteristics may limit initial acceptability.

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