Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Stroke. 2008 Apr;39(4):1121-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.500868. Epub 2008 Mar 6.

MMP-9-positive neutrophil infiltration is associated to blood-brain barrier breakdown and basal lamina type IV collagen degradation during hemorrhagic transformation after human ischemic stroke.

Author information

  • 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Aut├▓noma de Barcelona, Institut de Recerca, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

An abnormal expression of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is related with hemorrhagic transformation events after stroke. Our aim was to investigate MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ischemic brain and its relation with blood-brain barrier breakdown after hemorrhagic transformation in human stroke.

METHODS:

We assessed 5 cases of fatal ischemic strokes with hemorrhagic complications; brain samples were obtained from infarct, hemorrhagic, and contralateral tissue. MMP-9 and MMP-2 content was analyzed by zymography and immunohistochemistry was performed to localize MMP-9 and to assess collagen IV integrity in the basal lamina. Laser capture microdissection was performed to isolate blood-brain barrier vessels to study these MMPs.

RESULTS:

Overall, MMP-9 levels were higher both in hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic infarcted tissue compared to contralateral areas (P<0.0001 and P<0.05). Moreover, levels of the cleaved MMP-9 85kDa-form were significantly elevated in the hemorrhagic compared to nonhemorrhagic and contralateral areas (P=0.033 and P<0.0001). No changes were found for MMP-2 content. Immunostaining revealed a strong MMP-9-positive neutrophil infiltration surrounding brain microvessels associated with severe basal lamina type IV collagen degradation and blood extravasation. Microdissection confirmed that content of MMP-9 was similarly high in microvessel endothelium from hemorrhagic and infarcted areas compared to contralateral hemisphere vessels (P<0.05), pointing to neutrophils surrounding dissected microvessels as the main source of MMP-9 in hemorrhagic areas.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results show a strong neutrophil infiltration in the infarcted and hemorrhagic areas with local high MMP-9 content closely related to basal lamina collagen IV degradation and blood-brain barrier breakdown. Microvessel and inflammatory MMP-9 response are associated with hemorrhagic complications after stroke.

PMID:
18323498
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk