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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Mar;12(3 Suppl 1):63-8.

Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya.

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  • 1United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya.



Integrated tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in a resource-constrained setting.


Pilot provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) for TB patients and suspects.


Through partnerships, resources were mobilised to establish and support services. After community sensitisation and staff training, PITC was introduced to TB patients and then to TB suspects from December 2003 to December 2005.


Of 5457 TB suspects who received PITC, 89% underwent HIV testing. Although not statistically significant, TB suspects with TB disease had an HIV prevalence of 61% compared to 63% for those without. Of the 614 suspects who declined HIV testing, 402 (65%) had TB disease. Of 2283 patients referred for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 1951 (86%) were enrolled, and of 1727 patients assessed for antiretroviral treatment (ART), 1618 (94%) were eligible and 1441 (83%) started treatment.


PITC represents a paradigm shift and is feasible and acceptable to TB patients and TB suspects. Clear directives are nevertheless required to change practice. When offered to TB suspects, PITC identifies large numbers of persons requiring HIV care. Community sensitisation, staff training, multitasking and access to HIV care contributed to a high acceptance of HIV testing. Kenya is using this experience to inform national response and advocate wide PITC implementation in settings faced with the TB-HIV epidemic.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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