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Anesthesiology. 2008 Mar;108(3):506-23. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181649314.

Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: perioperative considerations.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesia, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome represents a constellation of risk factors associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and progression to diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance, a state of decreased biologic response to physiologic concentrations of insulin, is a key component of this syndrome and seems to be the result of a primary defect at the skeletal muscle glucose transporter. Acute illness and the perioperative period are characterized by a state of insulin resistance that manifests as hyperglycemia and leads to various other metabolic and biochemical alterations that adversely affect end organ function. Hyperglycemia in acutely ill patients adversely affects outcome. Achieving euglycemia seems beneficial in certain clinical situations, but considerable disagreement exists regarding the target blood sugar levels, the duration of therapy, and the modality. Pharmacotherapy, exercise, and nutrition to improve insulin sensitivity seem promising but require further evaluation to confirm their efficacy for perioperative risk reduction. This review discusses the pathophysiology and the clinical implications of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the acutely ill patient with an emphasis on perioperative modulation strategies.

PMID:
18292688
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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