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Stem Cell Rev. 2008 Spring;4(1):3-11. doi: 10.1007/s12015-008-9010-8.

Sources of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

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  • 1Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.


The shortage of organ donors for regenerative medicine has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy. Stem cells have been used widely for regenerative medicine applications. The development of innovative methods to generate stem cells from different sources suggests that there may be new alternatives for cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of human embryonic stem cells (hES) and the methods for obtaining these cells and other broadly multipotent or pluripotent cell types. These methods include somatic cell nuclear transfer, single cell embryo biopsy, arrested embryos, altered nuclear transfer, and reprogramming somatic cells. We also discuss the use of amniotic-fluid derived stem cells (AFS) for potential patient-specific therapies.

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