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Appl Opt. 1998 Aug 1;37(22):5239-52.

Effect of surface roughness and subsurface damage on grazing-incidence x-ray scattering and specular reflectance.


Grazing-incidence specular reflectance and near-specular scattering were measured at Al-K(alpha) (1.486-keV, 8.34-?) radiation on uncoated dielectric substrates whose surface topography had been measured with a scanning probe microscope and a mechanical profiler. Grazing-incidence specular reflectance was also measured on selected substrates at the Cu-K(alpha) (8.047-keV, 1.54-?) wavelength. Substrates included superpolished and conventionally polished fused silica; SiO(2) wafers; superpolished and precision-ground Zerodur; conventionally polished, float-polished, and precision-ground BK-7 glass; and superpolished and precision-ground silicon carbide. Roughnesses derived from x-ray specular reflectance and scattering measurements were in good agreement with topographic roughness values measured with a scanning probe microscope (atomic force microscope) and a mechanical profiler that included similar ranges of surface spatial wavelengths. The specular reflectance was also found to be sensitive to the density of polished surface layers and subsurface damage down to the penetration depth of the x rays. Density gradients and subsurface damage were found in the superpolished fused-silica and precision-ground Zerodur samples. These results suggest that one can nondestructively evaluate subsurface damage in transparent materials using grazing-incidence x-ray specular reflectance in the 1.5-8-keV range.

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