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Rev Port Pneumol. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):127-40.

[Extra-thoracic sarcoidosis].

[Article in Portuguese]

Author information

  • 1Servico de Pneumologia, Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.


Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology, characterized by the presence of non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas on tissue biopsy of affected organs. It may involve any organ, presenting in multiple forms to clinicians of different specialties. In its extra-thoracic form it may involve the liver (50-80%), spleen (40-80%), eye (20-50%), extrathoracic lymph nodes (30%), skin (25%), nervous system (10%), heart (5%), kidney, muscle and bone, sometimes without symptoms. The presence of extrathoracic disease may affect the prognosis and treatment options for sarcoidosis. The authors present a review of the major extra-thoracic manifestations of sarcoidosis regarding its clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and prognosis.

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