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Appl Opt. 1997 Aug 1;36(22):5421-40.

Synchrotron-radiation-operated cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as the high-accuracy primary detector standard in the ultraviolet, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges.

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  • 1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin, Germany.


The accuracy of detector calibration in the UV, vacuum-ultraviolet, and soft-x-ray spectral ranges could be significantly improved by the use of the synchrotron radiation electrical substitution radiometer (SYRES) as the primary detector standard. The SYRES radiometer is optimized for use with spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation as supplied by two monochromator beam lines in the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron-storage ring (BESSY). Wavelength ranges from 0.8 to 25 nm and from 35 to 400 nm are covered. The typically available radiant power of approximately 1-10 microW can be measured with the SYRES radiometer with a standard relative uncertainty of less than 0.2%. The spectral responsivity of qualified photodiodes for use as secondary detector standards is determined by direct comparison with the primary detector standard at an arbitrary wavelength. At present, the scale of spectral responsivity is realized with a standard relative uncertainty of well below 1% in the spectral ranges 0.8-3.5 nm, 5-25 nm, and 120-400 nm. We provide a comprehensive description of the SYRES radiometer and of the two facilities for detector calibration in the UV and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral ranges and in the soft-x-ray spectral range, respectively, and we discuss the achievable uncertainties in the calibration of detectors.

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