Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 7;358(6):568-79. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0706135.

HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir.

Author information

  • 1Royal Perth Hospital and Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. s.mallal@murdoch.edu.au

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir is strongly associated with the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele. This study was designed to establish the effectiveness of prospective HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent the hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir.

METHODS:

This double-blind, prospective, randomized study involved 1956 patients from 19 countries, who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and who had not previously received abacavir. We randomly assigned patients to undergo prospective HLA-B*5701 screening, with exclusion of HLA-B*5701-positive patients from abacavir treatment (prospective-screening group), or to undergo a standard-of-care approach of abacavir use without prospective HLA-B*5701 screening (control group). All patients who started abacavir were observed for 6 weeks. To immunologically confirm, and enhance the specificity of, the clinical diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, we performed epicutaneous patch testing with the use of abacavir.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 5.6% (109 of 1956 patients). Of the patients receiving abacavir, 72% were men, 84% were white, and 18% had not previously received antiretroviral therapy. Screening eliminated immunologically confirmed hypersensitivity reaction (0% in the prospective-screening group vs. 2.7% in the control group, P<0.001), with a negative predictive value of 100% and a positive predictive value of 47.9%. Hypersensitivity reaction was clinically diagnosed in 93 patients, with a significantly lower incidence in the prospective-screening group (3.4%) than in the control group (7.8%) (P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

HLA-B*5701 screening reduced the risk of hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. In predominantly white populations, similar to the one in this study, 94% of patients do not carry the HLA-B*5701 allele and are at low risk for hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Our results show that a pharmacogenetic test can be used to prevent a specific toxic effect of a drug. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340080.)

Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Comment in

PMID:
18256392
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for Faculty of 1000
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk