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J Chem Phys. 2008 Jan 28;128(4):044114. doi: 10.1063/1.2822966.

Topological analysis of electron densities from Kohn-Sham and subsystem density functional theory.

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  • 1Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.


In this study, we compare the electron densities for a set of hydrogen-bonded complexes obtained with either conventional Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculations or with the frozen-density embedding (FDE) method, which is a subsystem approach to DFT. For a detailed analysis of the differences between these two methods, we compare the topology of the electron densities obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT and FDE in terms of deformation densities, bond critical points, and the negative Laplacian of the electron density. Different kinetic-energy functionals as needed for the frozen-density embedding method are tested and compared to a purely electrostatic embedding. It is shown that FDE is able to reproduce the characteristics of the density in the bonding region even in systems such as the F-H-F(-) molecule, which contains one of the strongest hydrogen bonds. Basis functions on the frozen system are usually required to accurately reproduce the electron densities of supermolecular calculations. However, it is shown here that it is in general sufficient to provide just a few basis functions in the boundary region between the two subsystems so that the use of the full supermolecular basis set can be avoided. It also turns out that electron-density deformations upon bonding predicted by FDE lack directionality with currently available functionals for the nonadditive kinetic-energy contribution.

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