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Urology. 2008 Jan;71(1):41-6. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2007.08.056.

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy and extracorporeal urinary diversion: a single center experience of 48 cases with three years of follow-up.

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  • 1Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. hemal@wfubmc.edu



To report our experience with laparoscopic radical cystectomy and extracorporeal urinary diversion for high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer in a consecutive series of 48 patients with 3 years of follow-up.


From June 1999 to April 2006, 48 patients (42 men and 6 women; mean age 59 years, range 24 to 80) with bladder cancer underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection at our institution. Urinary diversion was done extracorporeally through the specimen extraction incision.


The mean operating time was 310 minutes, and the mean blood loss was 456 mL. In 1 patient, conversion to open surgery was required because of severe hypercarbia. Three major complications were observed intraoperatively (rectal injury in 2 and external iliac vein injury in 1 patient). However, all these complications were managed laparoscopically, with completion of the procedure laparoscopically. The mean hospital stay was 10.2 days (range 7 to 25). One patient died in the postoperative period of severe lower respiratory tract infection and septicemia. Histologic examination showed organ-confined tumors (Stage pT1/pT2/pT3a) in 34 patients (71%) and extravesical disease (pT3b/pT4) in 14 (29%). Of the 48 patients, 12 (25%) had lymph node involvement. The mean number of nodes removed was 14 (range 4 to 24). At a mean follow-up period of 38 months (range 10 to 72), 35 patients were alive with no evidence of disease (disease-free survival rate 73%).


The results of our study have shown that laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a safe, feasible, and effective alternative to open radical cystectomy. Extracorporeal urinary diversion through a small incision decreases the operating time, while maintaining the benefits of laparoscopic surgery. The 3-year oncologic efficacy was comparable to that of open radical cystectomy.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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