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Biosystems. 2008 Apr;92(1):42-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2007.11.004. Epub 2007 Dec 4.

Selection and flexible optimization of binding modes from conformation ensembles.

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  • 1Freie Universit├Ąt Berlin, International Research Training Group, Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Takustr. 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany.


This paper describes a new semi-flexible docking approach named Fado (flexible alignment and docking), which incorporates flexibility by using an ensemble of precomputed ligand conformers. A primary ligand is defined as a linear combination over all input conformers. An optimization with regard to the linear coefficients makes the ligand flexible. Initially, a point matching problem utilizing the Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF) is modeled in order to compute the correct orientation of the ligand with respect to the target. The problem is then solved through a local optimization approach (RPROP). This is done for 20 randomized ligand orientations, yielding 20 binding modes per complex. Evaluating these modes illustrates that our method is able to reproduce the binding modes of molecules within a few minutes of CPU time. A representative dataset of diverse protein-ligand complexes could be reproduced with 78% accuracy below 2A RMSD distance to the reference crystal structure. Fado is available upon request to the authors (see also

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