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Insect Mol Biol. 2008 Feb;17(1):39-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00778.x.

The Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein gene family: its role in the innate immune system of anopheles gambiae and in anti-Plasmodium defence.

Author information

  • 1W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179, USA.


Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs) are pattern recognition receptors which contribute to the defensive response against Plasmodium infection in Anopheles. We have characterized the GNBP gene family in Anopheles gambiae at the molecular level, and show that they are functionally diverse components of the A. gambiae innate immune system. GNBPB4 is a major factor in the defence against a broad range of pathogens, while the other GNBPs have narrower defence specificities. GNBPB4 is associated with the regulation of immune signalling pathways and was found to interact with the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and weakly co-localized with Plasmodium berghei ookinetes in the mosquito midgut epithelium.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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