Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(2):155-60. doi: 10.1080/00365520701679603.

Normal values for manometry performed with swallows of viscous test material.

Author information

  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. blonskiw@musc.edu



Esophageal function testing with combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) is performed using ten 5-ml liquid and viscous swallows. Diagnosis of bolus transit abnormalities identified by impedance is based on both liquid and viscous swallows. Manometric diagnosis is based solely on liquid swallows. The aim of this study was to establish the normal values for manometry performed with a viscous bolus.


MII-EM studies performed in 80 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The analyzed manometric parameters included contraction amplitude and duration, distal onset velocity and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) residual pressure.


Mean distal esophageal amplitude (DEA) (mmHg) for liquid swallows was 104 (+/-44) and for viscous swallows 102 (+/-51). Viscous versus liquid swallows were characterized by higher contraction amplitudes at 10 cm above the LES, slower distal onset velocities and higher LES residual pressures. Duration of contractions was similar between liquid and viscous swallows. Upper normal limits for viscous swallows were: 204 mmHg for DEA (mean+/-2 SDs); 6 ineffective and 1 simultaneous swallows and 11.7 mmHg for LES residual pressure (95th percentile).


Based on our results, the following values should be considered normal for manometry performed with viscous swallows: <or= 60% ineffective contractions, <or= 10% simultaneous contractions and DEA <204 mmHg, LES residual pressure <or= 11.7 mmHg.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Informa Healthcare
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk