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Ann Rheum Dis. 2008 Nov;67(11):1617-25. doi: 10.1136/ard.2008.087718. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Annexin 5 overexpression increased articular chondrocyte apoptosis induced by basic calcium phosphate crystals.

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  • 1INSERM U606, IFR 139, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals (octacalcium phosphate (OCP), carbapatite (CA) and hydroxyapatite (HA)) are associated with severe forms of osteoarthritis. In advanced osteoarthritis, cartilage shows chondrocyte apoptosis, overexpression of annexin 5 (A5) and BCP crystal deposition within matrix vesicles. We assessed in vitro whether BCP crystals and overexpression of A5 increased chondrocyte apoptosis.

METHODS:

Apoptosis was induced by BCP crystals, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (20 ng/ml) and Fas ligand (20 ng/ml) in normal articular chondrocytes (control) and in A5 overexpressed chondrocytes, performed by adenovirus infection. Apoptosis was assessed by caspase 3 (Cas3) activity, and DNA fragmentation.

RESULTS:

All BCP crystals, TNF-alpha and Fas ligand induced chondrocyte apoptosis as demonstrated by decreased cell viability and increased Cas3 activity and DNA fragmentation. TUNEL (terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling)-positive staining chondrocytes were increased by OCP (12.4 (5.2)%), CA (9.6 (2.6)%) and HA (9.2 (3.0)%) crystals and TNF-alpha (9.6 (2.4)%) stimulation compared with control (3.1 (1.9)%). BCP crystals increased Cas3 activity in a dose-dependent fashion. BCP-crystal-induced chondrocyte apoptosis was independent from TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta pathways but required cell-crystal contact and intralysosomal crystal dissolution. Indeed, preincubation with ammonium chloride, a lysosomal inhibitor of BCP crystal dissolution, significantly decreased BCP-crystal-induced Cas3 activity. Finally, overexpression of A5 enhanced BCP crystal- and TNF-alpha-induced chondrocyte apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overexpression of A5 and the presence of BCP crystals observed in advanced osteoarthritis contributed to chondrocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest a new pathophysiological mechanism for calcium-containing crystal arthropathies.

PMID:
18218665
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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