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Am J Addict. 2008 Jan-Feb;17(1):65-9. doi: 10.1080/10550490701756112.

Cigarette smoking in opioid-using patients presenting for hospital-based medical services.

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  • 1San Francisco Treatment Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.


Little is known about cigarette smoking among opioid users who are not in substance abuse treatment. The study examined cigarette smoking in out-of-treatment opioid users presenting at a hospital who participated in drug abuse research. Participants exhibited a high rate of smoking (92%) at baseline that remained unchanged at one year and were moderately nicotine-dependent. Nineteen percent preferred unfiltered cigarettes. Women were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes; men were more likely to smoke unfiltered cigarettes. Caucasians tended to smoke more than other ethnicities and exhibited greater dependence. Out-of-treatment drug users continue to be at high risk for continued smoking.

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