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Psychol Med. 2008 Jul;38(7):1027-36. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707002668. Epub 2008 Jan 21.

The long-term longitudinal course of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in ADHD boys: findings from a controlled 10-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study.

Author information

  • 1Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. jbiederman@partners.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A better understanding of the long-term scope and impact of the co-morbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) youth has important clinical and public health implications.

METHOD:

Subjects were assessed blindly at baseline (mean age=10.7 years), 1-year (mean age=11.9 years), 4-year (mean age=14.7 years) and 10-year follow-up (mean age=21.7 years). The subjects' lifetime diagnostic status of ADHD, ODD and CD by the 4-year follow-up were used to define four groups (Controls, ADHD, ADHD plus ODD, and ADHD plus ODD and CD). Diagnostic outcomes at the 10-year follow-up were considered positive if full criteria were met any time after the 4-year assessment (interval diagnosis). Outcomes were examined using a Kaplan-Meier survival function (persistence of ODD), logistic regression (for binary outcomes) and negative binomial regression (for count outcomes) controlling for age.

RESULTS:

ODD persisted in a substantial minority of subjects at the 10-year follow-up. Independent of co-morbid CD, ODD was associated with major depression in the interval between the 4-year and the 10-year follow-up. Although ODD significantly increased the risk for CD and antisocial personality disorder, CD conferred a much larger risk for these outcomes. Furthermore, only CD was associated with significantly increased risk for psychoactive substance use disorders, smoking, and bipolar disorder.

CONCLUSIONS:

These longitudinal findings support and extend previously reported findings from this sample at the 4-year follow-up indicating that ODD and CD follow a divergent course. They also support previous findings that ODD heralds a compromised outcome for ADHD youth grown up independently of the co-morbidity with CD.

PMID:
18205967
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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