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J Phys Chem B. 2008 Feb 7;112(5):1420-6. doi: 10.1021/jp709643h. Epub 2008 Jan 16.

Three-dimensional molecular mapping of a multiple emulsion by means of CARS microscopy.

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  • 1Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena, Germany.

Abstract

Multiple emulsions consisting of water droplets dispersed in an oil phase containing emulsifier which is emulsified in an outer water phase (W/O/W) are of great interest in pharmacology for developing new drugs, in the nutrition sciences for designing functional food, and in biology as model systems for cell organelles such as liposomes. In the food industry multiple emulsions with high sugar content in the aqueous phase can be used for the production of sweets, because the high sugar content prevents deterioration. However, for these emulsions the refractive indexes of oil and aqueous phase are very similar. This seriously impedes the analysis of these emulsions, e.g., for process monitoring, because microscopic techniques based on transmission or reflection do not provide sufficient contrast. We have characterized the inner dispersed phase of concentrated W/O/W emulsions with the same refractive index of the three phases by micro Raman spectroscopy and investigated the composition and molecular distribution in water-oil-water emulsions by means of three-dimensional laser scanning CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) microscopy. CARS microscopy has been used to study water droplets dispersed in oil droplets at different Raman resonances to visualize different molecular species. Water droplets with a diameter of about 700 nm could clearly be visualized. The advantages of CARS microscopy for studying this particular system are emphasized by comparing this microscopic technique with conventional confocal reflection and transmission microscopies.

PMID:
18197660
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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