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Anim Reprod Sci. 2008 Apr;105(1-2):139-43. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.11.022. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Male contraceptive technology for nonhuman male mammals.

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  • 1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.


Contraceptive techniques applied to males have potential to mitigate diverse instances of overpopulation in human and animal populations. Different situations involving different species dictate that there is no ideal male contraceptive, and emphasizes the value of varying approaches to reducing male fertility. A majority of work in this field has focused on non-surgically destroying the testes or obstructing the epididymis, and suppressing gonadotropin secretion or inducing immune responses to reproductive hormones or sperm-specific antigens. Injection of tissue-destructive agents into the testes or epididymides can be very effective, but often is associated with unacceptable inflammatory responses and sometimes pain. Hormonal vaccines are often not efficacious and provide only short-term contraception, although GnRH vaccines may be an exception to this generality. Finally, there are no clearly effective contraceptive vaccines based on sperm antigens. Although several techniques have been developed to the point of commercialization, none has yet been widely deployed other than surgical castration.

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