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Autophagy. 2008 Feb;4(2):151-75. Epub 2007 Nov 21.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes.

Klionsky DJ1, Abeliovich H, Agostinis P, Agrawal DK, Aliev G, Askew DS, Baba M, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bassham DC, Bergamini E, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Bredesen DE, Brodsky JL, Brumell JH, Brunk UT, Bursch W, Camougrand N, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Chen Y, Chin LS, Choi A, Chu CT, Chung J, Clarke PG, Clark RS, Clarke SG, Clavé C, Cleveland JL, Codogno P, Colombo MI, Coto-Montes A, Cregg JM, Cuervo AM, Debnath J, Demarchi F, Dennis PB, Dennis PA, Deretic V, Devenish RJ, Di Sano F, Dice JF, Difiglia M, Dinesh-Kumar S, Distelhorst CW, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dorsey FC, Dröge W, Dron M, Dunn WA Jr, Duszenko M, Eissa NT, Elazar Z, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Fésüs L, Finley KD, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujisaki K, Galliot B, Gao FB, Gewirtz DA, Gibson SB, Gohla A, Goldberg AL, Gonzalez R, González-Estévez C, Gorski S, Gottlieb RA, Häussinger D, He YW, Heidenreich K, Hill JA, Høyer-Hansen M, Hu X, Huang WP, Iwasaki A, Jäättelä M, Jackson WT, Jiang X, Jin S, Johansen T, Jung JU, Kadowaki M, Kang C, Kelekar A, Kessel DH, Kiel JA, Kim HP, Kimchi A, Kinsella TJ, Kiselyov K, Kitamoto K, Knecht E, Komatsu M, Kominami E, Kondo S, Kovács AL, Kroemer G, Kuan CY, Kumar R, Kundu M, Landry J, Laporte M, Le W, Lei HY, Lenardo MJ, Levine B, Lieberman A, Lim KL, Lin FC, Liou W, Liu LF, Lopez-Berestein G, López-Otín C, Lu B, Macleod KF, Malorni W, Martinet W, Matsuoka K, Mautner J, Meijer AJ, Meléndez A, Michels P, Miotto G, Mistiaen WP, Mizushima N, Mograbi B, Monastyrska I, Moore MN, Moreira PI, Moriyasu Y, Motyl T, Münz C, Murphy LO, Naqvi NI, Neufeld TP, Nishino I, Nixon RA, Noda T, Nürnberg B, Ogawa M, Oleinick NL, Olsen LJ, Ozpolat B, Paglin S, Palmer GE, Papassideri I, Parkes M, Perlmutter DH, Perry G, Piacentini M, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Prescott M, Proikas-Cezanne T, Raben N, Rami A, Reggiori F, Rohrer B, Rubinsztein DC, Ryan KM, Sadoshima J, Sakagami H, Sakai Y, Sandri M, Sasakawa C, Sass M, Schneider C, Seglen PO, Seleverstov O, Settleman J, Shacka JJ, Shapiro IM, Sibirny A, Silva-Zacarin EC, Simon HU, Simone C, Simonsen A, Smith MA, Spanel-Borowski K, Srinivas V, Steeves M, Stenmark H, Stromhaug PE, Subauste CS, Sugimoto S, Sulzer D, Suzuki T, Swanson MS, Tabas I, Takeshita F, Talbot NJ, Tallóczy Z, Tanaka K, Tanaka K, Tanida I, Taylor GS, Taylor JP, Terman A, Tettamanti G, Thompson CB, Thumm M, Tolkovsky AM, Tooze SA, Truant R, Tumanovska LV, Uchiyama Y, Ueno T, Uzcátegui NL, van der Klei I, Vaquero EC, Vellai T, Vogel MW, Wang HG, Webster P, Wiley JW, Xi Z, Xiao G, Yahalom J, Yang JM, Yap G, Yin XM, Yoshimori T, Yu L, Yue Z, Yuzaki M, Zabirnyk O, Zheng X, Zhu X, Deter RL.

Author information

  • 1Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2216, USA. klionsky@umich.edu

Abstract

Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.

Comment in

  • Getting into the flow. [Autophagy. 2008]
PMID:
18188003
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2654259
Free PMC Article

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