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J Fam Psychol. 2007 Dec;21(4):683-93. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.21.4.683.

Father participation in behavioral parent training for ADHD: review and recommendations for increasing inclusion and engagement.

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  • 1University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Baffalo, NY 14260, USA.


Research on parenting has generally focused on mothers, with fathers' parenting approaches and interventions for fathers being relatively less studied. To investigate the involvement of fathers in behavioral parent training (BPT), the literature on BPT for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reviewed. A systematic review of this literature (N = 32) indicated that the majority of research studies are composed of mothers as participants in treatment and raters of outcome (87% of reviewed studies did not include information on father-related outcomes). Present barriers to father participation in BPT (e.g., content of classes, characteristics of fathers) are discussed. Strategies for increasing father participation are offered and include establishing the expectation that fathers will be involved in treatment at initial clinical contacts, collecting treatment-related information from both parents, conducting BPT classes that focus on issues of direct relevance to fathers, and integrating parent-child interactions in recreational settings into BPT programs.

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