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J Immunol. 2008 Jan 15;180(2):683-7.

Cutting edge: cooperation of IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in poly IC-enhanced antibody production and cytotoxic T cell responses.

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  • 1Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.


Double-stranded RNA, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC), acts as an adjuvant that enhances adaptive immune responses. The recognition of poly IC is mediated by endosomal TLR3 and cytoplasmic RNA helicase melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5), which signal through the adaptors Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) and IFN-beta promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1), respectively. However, the contribution of these pathways to the adjuvant effects of poly IC remains unclear. In this study, we found that poly IC-enhanced, Ag-specific Ab production was severely decreased in IPS-1-deficient mice but not in TRIF-deficient mice. However, the double deficiency resulted in a complete loss of Ab production. Furthermore, Ag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion was reduced in both IPS-1-deficient and TRIF-deficient mice and entirely abrogated in the doubly deficient mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the adjuvant effects of poly IC require a cooperative activation of TLR and cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways.

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