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Oncogene. 2008 Jan 7;27(2):225-33. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210907.

Cancers take their Toll--the function and regulation of Toll-like receptors in cancer cells.

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  • 1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.


Cancer could be deemed as an abnormal and uncontrolled tissue repair process. Therefore, it would not be surprising that factors that function in the tissue repair process, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, as well as growth signals for compensatory proliferation, would also be key factors in regulating and enhancing cancer progression. The TLR pathways, which play a critical role in tissue repair, are also key regulators in cancer progression as well as chemoresistance. TLRs serve as cell surface sensors that can initiate pathways leading to proliferation and chemoresistance; as well as mediators that are able to regulate the infiltrating immune cells to provide further support for cancer progression.

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