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J Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1;197(1):102-8. doi: 10.1086/524061.

Greater tenofovir-associated renal function decline with protease inhibitor-based versus nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy.

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  • 1Antiviral Research Center, University of California, San Diego, 150 W. Washington St., Ste. 100, San Diego, CA 92103, USA. mgoicoechea@ucsd.edu



Plasma concentrations of tenofovir increase when the drug is coadministered with some ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r). We hypothesized that tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-treated patients taking PI/r-based regimens would have a greater decline in renal function than patients receiving nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy.


We compared the estimated decline in renal function among 146 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients receiving a TDF+PI/r- (n = 51), TDF+NNRTI- (n = 29), or non-TDF-containing (n = 66) regimen. Plasma tenofovir concentrations were measured at study week 2, and rates of creatinine clearance (CrCl) were estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze regimen type and tenofovir concentration as predictors of change in CrCl from baseline to weeks 24 and 48.


Decreases in C-G estimates of CrCl were not significantly different among the 3 groups during the first 24 weeks of therapy. However, in adjusted analyses, patients receiving TDF+PI/r had a greater rate of decline in CrCl than did the TDF+NNRTI group (for C-G, -13.9 vs. -6.2 mL/min/year [P = .03]; for MDRD, -14.7 vs. -4.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year [P = .02]). Among TDF-treated patients, tenofovir plasma concentration was not associated with CrCl over time.


Treatment with TDF and PI/r was associated with greater declines in renal function over 48 weeks compared with TDF+NNRTI-based regimens.

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