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J Biomed Opt. 2007 Nov-Dec;12(6):060503. doi: 10.1117/1.2818045.

Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue.

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  • 1Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-4899, USA.


A reflection-mode photoacoustic (PA) imaging system was designed and built to image deep structures in biological tissues. We chose near-infrared laser pulses of 804-nm wavelength for PA excitation to achieve deep penetration. To minimize unwanted surface signals, we adopted dark-field ring-shaped illumination. This imaging system employing a 5-MHz spherically focused ultrasonic transducer provides penetration up to 38 mm in chicken breast tissue. At the 19-mm depth, the axial resolution is 144 microm and the transverse resolution is 560 microm. Internal organs of small animals were imaged clearly.

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