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World J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 28;13(48):6465-9.

Genetic and epigenetic changes associated with cholangiocarcinoma: from DNA methylation to microRNAs.

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  • 1Division of Research and Education, Scott & White Hospital, Temple, TX 76504, USA.


Cholangiocarcinomas are malignant epithelial liver tumors arising from the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. Little is known about the molecular development of this disease, and very few effective treatment options are available. Thus, prognosis is poor. Genetic and epigenetic changes play an integral role in the neoplastic transformation of human cells to their malignant counterparts. This review summarizes some of the more prevalent genetic alterations (by microRNA expression) and epigenetic changes (hypermethylation of specific gene promoters) that are thought to contribute to the carcinogenic process in cholangiocarcinoma.

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