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J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Mar;83(3):447-55. Epub 2007 Dec 26.

A2A receptors in inflammation and injury: lessons learned from transgenic animals.

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  • 1UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. haskoge@umdnj.edu


Adenosine regulates the function of the innate and adaptive immune systems through targeting virtually every cell type that is involved in orchestrating an immune/inflammatory response. Of the four adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), A(3)), A(2A) receptors have taken center stage as the primary anti-inflammatory effectors of extracellular adenosine. This broad, anti-inflammatory effect of A(2A) receptor activation is a result of the predominant expression of A(2A) receptors on monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, neutrophils, endothelial cells, eosinophils, epithelial cells, as well as lymphocytes, NK cells, and NKT cells. A(2A) receptor activation inhibits early and late events occurring during an immune response, which include antigen presentation, costimulation, immune cell trafficking, immune cell proliferation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and cytotoxicity. In addition to limiting inflammation, A(2A) receptors participate in tissue remodeling and reparation. Consistent with their multifaceted, immunoregulatory action on immune cells, A(2A) receptors have been shown to impact the course of a wide spectrum of ischemic, autoimmune, infectious, and allergic diseases. Here, we review the regulatory roles of A(2A) receptors in immune/inflammatory diseases of various organs, including heart, lung, gut, liver, kidney, joints, and brain, as well as the role of A(2A) receptors in regulating multiple organ failure and sepsis.

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