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Brain Tumor Pathol. 2006 Apr;23(1):55-63.

A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.

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  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8562, Japan. asanoken@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been considered an astrocytic tumor with a relatively favorable prognosis. However, PXA cases having several recurrent patterns with poor prognosis have been reported in recent years, and a new concept of anaplastic PXA has been proposed. The present case was a 59-year-old woman who presented with tumor bleeding onset and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. The patient had sudden-onset right hemiparesis, aphasia, and consciousness disturbance and was admitted to a local area hospital. After emergency surgery had removed the hematoma, postoperative contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a left temporal tumor. A second surgery was therefore performed for initial tumor removal 2 months later. Histopathological findings showed that the tumor was typical PXA with strong pleomorphism and xanthomatous changes and contained an ependymoma-like component in the center area. However, endothelial proliferation and mitosis were more remarkable compared to ordinary PXA. The MIB-1 labeling index was 9.8% high. From these findings, the histopathological diagnosis was anaplastic PXA. The patient underwent surgery to remove recurrent tumors 5 and 16 months later. The patient died 36 months after the first onset, and CT revealed glioblastoma-like findings and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. This case report is the first case in which PXA presented with tumor bleeding onset. Histopathological findings suggested anaplastic PXA from the first surgical specimens, and PXA recurred many times. We thus believe that the patient displayed primary anaplastic PXA rather than secondary anaplastic PXA that results in malignant transformation.

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