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Blood. 2008 Feb 15;111(4):2132-41. Epub 2007 Dec 6.

Disease-associated CIAS1 mutations induce monocyte death, revealing low-level mosaicism in mutation-negative cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome patients.

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  • 1Departments of Pediatrics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.


Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a spectrum of systemic autoinflammatory disorders in which the majority of patients have mutations in the cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome (CIAS)1 gene. Despite having indistinguishable clinical features, some patients lack CIAS1 mutations by conventional nucleotide sequencing. We recently reported a CAPS patient with mosaicism of mutant CIAS1, and raised the possibility that CIAS1 mutations were overlooked in "mutation-negative" patients, due to a low frequency of mosaicism. To determine whether there were latent mutant cells in "mutation-negative" patients, we sought to identify mutation-associated biologic phenotypes of patients' monocytes. We found that lipopolysaccharide selectively induced necrosis-like cell death in monocytes bearing CIAS1 mutations. Monocyte death correlated with CIAS1 up-regulation, was dependent on cathepsin B, and was independent of caspase-1. Cell death was intrinsic to CIAS1-mutated monocytes, was not mediated by the inflammatory milieu, and was independent of disease severity or anti-IL-1 therapy. By collecting dying monocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment, we succeeded in enriching CIAS1-mutant monocytes and identifying low-level CIAS1-mosaicism in 3 of 4 "mutation-negative" CAPS patients. Our findings reveal a novel effect of CIAS1 mutations in promoting necrosis-like cell death, and demonstrate that CIAS1 mosaicism plays an important role in mutation-negative CAPS patients.

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