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Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2007 Dec;7(12):1737-47.

Biomarkers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

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  • 1The Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. georges2@ccf.org

Abstract

The treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved significantly following the identification of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and the function of its protein, and subsequent development of antiangiogenic therapies. A series of clinical trials resulted in the approval of three new agents with significant activity in this disease. Additional studies are now underway to identify subsets of patients most likely to benefit. This article reviews the current therapy for advanced RCC and the development of biomarkers in RCC. This requires the identification of disease characteristics at a clinical, genetic and molecular level associated with response and/or surrogate measures of clinical benefit. Currently, a variety of prognostic factors (lactate dehydrogenase, performance status, disease-free interval, hemoglobin and calcium levels) are utilized to predict the survival of RCC patients. The use of validated biomarkers in either serum/plasma, urine or tissue could enhance this process, as well as define at the molecular and genetic levels, factors associated with response to therapy and/or the development of resistance. Examples include plasma VEGF levels, VHL gene mutation status and carbonic anhydrase IX levels in tumor tissue, among others. Validation of such biomarkers is crucial in order for them to be clinically useful.

PMID:
18062748
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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