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Bone. 2008 Feb;42(2):405-13. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Multi-modality study of the compositional and mechanical implications of hypomineralization in a rabbit model of osteomalacia.

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  • 1Laboratory for Structural NMR Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. sailaja.anumula@uphs.upenn.edu

Abstract

Osteomalacia is characterized by hypomineralization of the bone associated with increased water content. In this work we evaluate the hypotheses that 1) 3D solid-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of (31)P (SSI-PH) and (1)H (SSI-WATER) of cortical bone can quantify the key characteristics of osteomalacia induced by low-phosphate diet; and 2) return to normophosphatemic diet (NO) results in recovery of these indices to normal levels. Twenty female five-week old rabbits were divided into four groups. Five animals were fed a normal diet for 8 weeks (NOI); five a hypophosphatemic diet (0.09%) for the same period to induce osteomalacia (HYI). To examine the effect of recovery from hypophosphatemia an additional five animals received a hypophosphatemic diet for 8 weeks, after which they were returned to a normal diet for 6 weeks (HYII). Finally, five animals received a normal diet for the entire 14 weeks (NOII). The NOI and HYI animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, the NOII and HYII groups after 14 weeks. Cortical bone was extracted from the left and right tibiae of all the animals. Water content was measured by SSI-WATER and by a previously reported spectroscopic proton-deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) exchange technique (NMR-WATER), phosphorus content by SSI-PH. All MRI and NMR experiments were performed on a 9.4 T spectroscopy/micro-imaging system. Degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) was measured by micro-CT and elastic modulus and ultimate strength by 3-point bending. The following parameters were lower in the hypophosphatemic group: phosphorus content measured by SSI-PH (9.5+/-0.4 versus 11.1+/-0.3 wt.%, p<0.0001), ash content (63.9+/-1.7 versus 65.4+/-1.1 wt.%, p=0.05), ultimate strength, (96.3+/-16.0 versus 130.7+/-6.4 N/mm(2), p=0.001), and DMB (1115+/-28 versus 1176+/-24 mg/cm(3), p=0.003); SSI-WATER: 16.1+/-1.5 versus 14.4+/-1.1 wt.%, p=0.04; NMR-WATER: 19.0+/-0.6 versus 17.4+/-1.2 wt.%, p=0.01. Return to a normophosphatemic diet reduced or eliminated these differences (SSI-PH: 9.5+/-0.9 versus 10.6+/-0.8 wt.%, p=0.04; DMB: 1124+/-31 versus 1137+/-10 mg/cm(3), p=0.2; US: 95.6+/-18.6 versus 103.9+/-7.5 N/mm(2), p=0.2; SSI-WATER: 12.4+/-0.6 versus 12.2+/-0.3 wt.%, p=0.3) indicating recovery of the mineral density close to normal levels. Phosphorus content measured by SSI-PH was significantly correlated with DMB measured by micro-CT (r(2)=0.47, p=0.001) as well as with ultimate strength (r(2)=0.54, p=0.0004). The results show that the methods presented have potential for in situ assessment of mineralization and water, both critical to the bone's mechanical behavior.

PMID:
18053788
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2259120
Free PMC Article
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