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J Clin Oncol. 2007 Dec 1;25(34):5442-7.

Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia: the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.



To evaluate a less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen specifically designed for patients with Down syndrome (DS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and to determine the prognostic factors for event-free survival.


Seventy-two patients with AML-DS were treated with remission induction chemotherapy consisting of pirarubicin (25 mg/m2/d for 2 days), cytarabine (100 mg/m2/d for 7 days), and etoposide (150 mg/m2/d for 3 days). Patients received four courses of intensification therapy of the same regimen. Prophylaxis for CNS leukemia was not included.


All but two patients were younger than 4 years, and 67 of the 72 patients (93%) were diagnosed as acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Seventy of the 72 patients (97.2%) achieved a complete remission (CR), and the estimated 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 83% +/- 9%. Nine patients relapsed, and one died as a result of pneumonia during CR. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of monosomy 7 was a greater risk factor of adverse outcome (odds ratio = 5.67; P = .027).


A less intensive chemotherapeutic regimen produces excellent outcomes in standard-risk AML-DS patient. Risk-oriented therapy should be considered for future trials in AML-DS.

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