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Environ Res. 2008 Mar;106(3):379-83. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes.

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  • 1North Queensland Health Equalities Promotion Unit, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Cairns, Qld 4870, Australia. Melissa_haswell@health.qld.gov.au

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR).

RESULTS:

Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 microg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 microg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements).

CONCLUSIONS:

While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

PMID:
18045586
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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