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J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008 Jan;5(1):36-47.

Issues when modeling benzene, toluene, and xylene exposures using a literature database.

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  • 1National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA.


A database of benzene, toluene, and xylene measurements was compiled from an extensive literature review that contained information on several exposure determinants, including job type, operation, mechanism of release, process type, ventilation, temperature, distance from the source, quantity, and location. The database was used to develop statistical models for benzene, toluene, and xylene exposure as a function of operation and other workplace determinants. These models can be used to predict exposure levels for subjects enrolled in community-based case-control studies. This article presents the derived parameter estimates for specific operations and additional workplace exposure determinants and describes a number of statistical and data limitation issues that are inherent in determinants modeling of historical published data. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource(s): a PDF file of QQ plots and a Word file with references used in the benzene/toluene/xylene exposure database].

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