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Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec;35(Pt 6):1479-84.

Nod1 and Nod2 in innate immunity and human inflammatory disorders.

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  • 1Department of Immunology, Medical Sciences Building, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8.

Abstract

Nod (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) 1 and Nod2 are intracellular PRMs (pattern-recognition molecules) of the NLR (Nod-like receptor) family. These proteins are implicated in the detection of bacterial peptidoglycan and regulate pro-inflammatory pathways in response to bacteria by inducing signalling pathways such as NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases). The Nod proteins act independently of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) cascade, but potently synergize with the latter to trigger innate immune responses to microbes. Most importantly, mutations in Nod2 have been shown to confer susceptibility to several chronic inflammatory disorders, including Crohn's disease, Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, underscoring the role of Nod2 in inflammatory homoeostasis. This review summarizes the most recent findings in the field of Nod1 and Nod2 research.

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