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Genet Couns. 2007;18(3):277-88.

31 cases with oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (Goldenhar syndrome): clinical, neuroradiologic, audiologic and cytogenetic findings.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Genetics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ihsan Do─čramaci Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.


Goldenhar syndrome (GS) or oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia (OAVD) is characterized by pre-auricular skin tags, microtia, facial asymmetry, ocular abnormalities and vertebral anomalies of different size and shape. The phenotypical findings of this syndrome are variable due to heterogenous aetiology. For that reason, the physician sometimes faces difficulty when making a definite diagnosis of OAVD. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory findings of 31 patients (15 boys and 16 girls) aged from 1 day to 16 years with the clinical diagnosis of GS. The characteristic features were pre-auricular skin tags (90%), microtia (52%), hemifacial microsomia (77%) and epibulbar dermoids (39%). Vertebral anomalies were noted in 70% of the patients. Cardiac malformations were found in 39% while a genitourinary anomaly was noted in 23% and various central nervous system malformations in 47%. There were 3 pregnancies following an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique among the 31 patients. Two patients with GS came from the same family. Their relatives had hydrocephaly, myelomeningocele and neural tube defects. It is known that some chromosomal aberrations are seen in GS. We performed chromosome analysis of 29 patients. Among these cases, only one patient with severe mental and motor retardation had a 47,XX,+der(22)t(11,22)(q23; q11 karyotype due to a maternal balanced translocation t(11;22)(q23;q11). This translocation was demonstrated in her sister, brother and maternal uncle. Additionally CATCH 22 analysis in 13 cases with OAVD with a CATCH 22 phenotype revealed no deletion. OAVD patients present with different morphologic features and systemic manifestations. A multidisciplinary approach should be undertaken by departments such as pediatric cardiology, audiology, ophthalmology and plastic surgery when evaluating patients with OAVD. Chromosome analysis should be performed in every patient with Goldenhar syndrome.

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