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Am J Surg. 2007 Dec;194(6):866-70; discussion 870-1.

One hundred consecutive laparoscopic Nissen's without the use of a bougie.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 983280 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-3280, USA.



The creation of a floppy and symmetric fundoplication over a bougie has been the standard of care in laparoscopic surgery. The use of a bougie carries a risk of esophageal perforation but lowers the risk of postoperative dysphagia. Intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy (IEGD) can be used to assess the orientation and position of a properly constructed Nissen. The aim of this study was to determine if IEGD can replace the routine use of a bougie in the creation of a fundoplication.


One hundred consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication from 2003 to 2005 were entered into a prospective database. IEGD was used in all patients instead of a bougie. Preoperative and postoperative data, including symptom scores, pH studies, manometry, and upper gastrointestinal studies, were analyzed.


All 100 patients completed the study for a mean follow-up period of 18 months. The mean surgical time was 102 minutes. The mean intraoperative endoscopy time was 14 minutes. There were a total of 24 (24%) alterations of the fundoplication performed according to endoscopic wrap creation. The most common alteration was removal of a fundoplication stitch in 15 patients with a tight appearance of wrap. There were no major complications. Two patients required esophageal dilatation for mild to moderate dysphagia.


IEGD is a valuable tool for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. IEGD helps to appreciate the true location of the gastroesophageal junction and allows for fundoplication adjustment based on additional visualization. The creation of a symmetric and floppy wrap during Nissen fundoplication can be facilitated greatly by intraoperative endoscopy and may lead to improved clinical outcomes without the risk of esophageal perforation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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