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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 20;104(47):18825-9. Epub 2007 Nov 13.

NPY1, a BTB-NPH3-like protein, plays a critical role in auxin-regulated organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

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  • 1Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA.


Auxin is an essential regulator for plant development. To elucidate the mechanisms by which auxin regulates plant development, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant naked pins in yuc mutants 1 (npy1) that develops pin-like inflorescences and fails to initiate any flowers in yuc1 yuc4, a background that is defective in auxin biosynthesis. The phenotypes of npy1 yuc1 yuc4 triple mutants closely resemble those of Arabidopsis mutants pin-formed1 (pin1), pinoid (pid), and monopteros (mp), which are defective in either auxin transport or auxin signaling. NPY1 belongs to a large family of proteins and is homologous to NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), a BTB/POZ protein that regulates phototropic responses along with the protein kinase PHOT1 (Phototropin 1). We demonstrate that NPY1 works with the protein kinase PID, which is homologous to PHOT1, to regulate auxin-mediated plant development. The npy1 pid double mutants fail to form any cotyledons, a phenotype that is also observed in yuc1 yuc4 pid triple mutants. Interestingly, both auxin-regulated organogenesis and phototropic responses require an auxin response factor (ARF). Disruption of ARF7/NPH4 leads to nonphototropic hypocotyls and arf5/mp forms pin-like inflorescences. Whereas the PHOT1/NPH3 pathway is regulated by light, our data suggest that the PID/NPY1 pathway may be regulated by auxin synthesized by the YUC flavin monooxygenases. Our findings put YUCs, PID, and NPY1 into a genetic framework for further dissecting the mechanisms of auxin action in plant development.

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