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J Nat Prod. 2007 Nov;70(11):1731-40. Epub 2007 Nov 8.

Variation in cytostatic constituents of a sponge-derived Gymnascella dankaliensis by manipulating the carbon source.

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  • 1Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan.


The Halichondria sponge-derived fungus, Gymnacella dankaliensis, was cultured in two different media conditions. A modified malt extract medium containing soluble starch instead of glucose resulted in two extremely unusual steroids, dankasterones A (2) and B (3), while four additional unusual steroids, gymnasterones A (4), B (5), C (6), and D (7), were isolated from the original malt extract medium. Their stereostructures have been established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses along with X-ray crystal structure analyses, modified Mosher's method, CD exciton method, and a chemical transformation. All the steroids except for 4 exhibited significant growth inhibition against the murine P388 cancer cell line. Dankasterone A (2) also exhibited potent growth inhibition against human cancer cell lines.

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