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Neuropsychology. 2007 Nov;21(6):751-60.

Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

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  • 1Rudolph Magnus Center for Neurosciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.


This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that the performance of probands, unaffected siblings, and control participants are on a continuum. Participants (aged 6 to 17) were 25 ADHD probands with a family history of ADHD, their 25 unaffected siblings, and 48 control participants. The unaffected siblings did not differ from the ADHD probands on attentional control or on some measures of mental flexibility. Linear changes in performance across the groups reflected an intermediate position of the unaffected siblings between the probands and control participants. These results suggest that these executive functions may be suitable endophenotypes of ADHD.

PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

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