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J Cell Biochem. 2007 Dec 15;102(6):1343-57.

Understanding the pathology and mechanisms of type I diabetic bone loss.

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  • 1Department of Physiology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Michigan State University, 2201 Biomedical Physical Science Building, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.


Type I (T1) diabetes, also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is characterized by little or no insulin production and hyperglycemia. One of the less well known complications of T1-diabetes is bone loss which occurs in humans and animal models. This complication is receiving increased attention because T1-diabetics are living longer due to better therapeutics, and are faced with their existing health concerns being compounded by complications associated with aging, such as osteoporosis. Both male and female, endochondrial and intra-membranous, and axial and appendicular bones are susceptible to T1-diabetic bone loss. Exact mechanisms accounting for T1-diabetic bone loss are not known. Existing data indicate that the bone defect in T1-diabetes is anabolic rather than catabolic, suggesting that anabolic therapeutics may be more effective in preventing bone loss. Potential contributors to T1-diabetic suppression of bone formation are discussed in this review and include: increased marrow adiposity, hyperlipidemia, reduced insulin signaling, hyperglycemia, inflammation, altered adipokine and endocrine factors, increased cell death, and altered metabolism. Differences between T1-diabetic- and age-associated bone loss underlie the importance of condition specific, individualized treatments for osteoporosis. Optimizing therapies that prevent bone loss or restore bone density will allow T1-diabetic patients to live longer with strong healthy bones.

Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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