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Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;316:193-205.

Regulation of antiviral innate immune responses by RIG-I family of RNA helicases.

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  • 1Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.


The recognition of viral nucleic acids with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is the first step in inducing the innate immune system. Type I interferons (IFNs), central mediators in antiviral innate immunity, along with other cytokines and chemokines, disrupt virus replication. Recent studies indicated at least two distinct pathways for the induction of type I IFN by viral infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are extracellular or endosomal PRRs for microbial pathogens, whereas retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are novel intracellular PRRs for the viral dsRNA. In this review, we describe the distinct mechanisms inducing type I IFNs through TLRs and RIG-I/MDA5 pathways.

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