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Environ Monit Assess. 2008 Oct;145(1-3):1-6. Epub 2007 Oct 27.

Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India.

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  • 1Environmental Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Zoology, S.G.N. Khalsa (PG) College, Sri Ganganagar 335 00, India. sutharss_soilbiology@yahoo.co.in


This study was carried out to assess the fluoride concentration in groundwater in some villages of northern Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Water samples collected form deep aquifer based hand-pumps were analysed for fluoride content. Fluoride in presently studied sites was recorded in the ranges of 4.78 and 1.01 mg/l. The average fluoride concentration for this region was recorded 2.82 mg/l. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by WHO or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 95 of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. The middle and eastern parts of the Hanumangarh, a northern most district of the state, can be classified as higher risk area for fluorosis; due to relatively high concentrations of fluoride (3-4 mg/l) in groundwater of this region. After evaluating the data of this study it is concluded that there is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis.

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