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J Biol Chem. 2007 Dec 21;282(51):37064-73. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Calcineurin promotes hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression by dephosphorylating RACK1 and blocking RACK1 dimerization.

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  • 1Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Mass Spectronomy Proteomics Facility, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Abstract

Oxygen homeostasis represents an essential organizing principle of metazoan evolution and biology. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of transcriptional responses to changes in O2 concentration. HIF-1 is a heterodimer of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits. O2-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha subunit is mediated by prolyl hydroxylase, von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL)/Elongin-C E3 ubiquitin ligase, and the proteasome. O2-independent degradation of HIF-1alpha is regulated by the competition of RACK1 and HSP90 for binding to HIF-1alpha. RACK1 binding results in the recruitment of the Elongin-C E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to VHL-independent ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha. In this report, we show that calcineurin inhibits the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha. Calcineurin is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is activated by calcium and calmodulin. The phosphatase activity of calcineurin is required for its regulation of HIF-1alpha. RACK1 binds to the catalytic domain of calcineurin and is required for HIF-1alpha degradation induced by the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A. Elongin-C and HIF-1alpha each bind to RACK1 and dimerization of RACK1 is required to recruit Elongin-C to HIF-1alpha. Phosphorylation of RACK1 promotes its dimerization and dephosphorylation by calcineurin inhibits dimerization. Serine 146 within the dimerization domain is phosphorylated and mutation of serine 146 impairs RACK1 dimerization and HIF-1alpha degradation. These results indicate that intracellular calcium levels can regulate HIF-1alpha expression by modulating calcineurin activity and RACK1 dimerization.

PMID:
17965024
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3754800
Free PMC Article

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