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Tree Physiol. 2008 Jan;28(1):105-12.

Estimating the onset of cambial activity in Scots pine in northern Finland by means of the heat-sum approach.

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  • 1University of Hamburg, Department of Wood Science, Division Wood Biology, Leuschnerstrasse 91, D-21031 Hamburg, Germany.


We estimated the date of onset (Date(est)) of cambial activity by the pinning method in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees at Vanttauskoski (Site 1) and Laanila (Site 2) near the latitudinal limit of Scots pine in northern Finland. In each year and at each site, observations were made on a different set of five trees. The estimated dates of onset of cambial activity were compared with the corresponding heat sums, calculated in degree-days according to two models. Within years, Date(est) varied among trees by up to 15 days at Site 1 and up to 13 days at Site 2. Among years, mean Date(est) varied by 15.3 days at Site 1 and 12.0 days at Site 2. The overall mean Date(est) differed between sites by 6 days (June 5 at Site 1 and June 11 at Site 2). Among all trees in all years, the mean number of degree days (d.d.) calculated from mean daily temperature above a threshold of 5 degrees C before Date(est) ranged from 68.7 to 135 d.d. at Site 1 and from 37.4 to 154.7 d.d. at Site 2. Among years, the mean heat sum before Date(est )ranged from 94 to 112.5 d.d. at Site 1 and from 61.4 to 136 d.d. at Site 2. Variation among years in heat sum before Date(est) at Site 2 was highly significant, indicating that one or more factors other than, or in addition to, heat sum determines the onset of cambial activity in Scots pine. Similar results were obtained when heat sum was computed from the area between the sine wave generated by daily maximum and minimum temperature and the threshold temperature.

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