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Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008 Apr;19(4):553-7. Epub 2007 Oct 10.

Short-term results of bilateral S2-S4 sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome, and chronic pelvic pain.

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  • 1The Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.


We evaluated the efficacy of bilateral caudal epidural sacral neuromodulation for the treatment of refractory chronic pelvic pain (CPP), painful bladder syndrome, and interstitial cystitis (IC). Thirty consecutive patients (21 female, 9 male) with severe refractory symptoms underwent bilateral S2-S4 sacral neuromodulation for CPP/IC. Patients were evaluated with the O'Leary IC symptom and problem index (ICSI, ICPI), the short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6), and the RAND 36-item health survey (SF-36) preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The mean and minimum follow-up were 15 and 6 months, respectively. Of the 30 patients, 23 (77%) had a successful trial stimulation and were permanently implanted. Among these patients, the ICSI and ICPI scores improved by 35 (p = 0.005) and 38% (p = 0.007), respectively. The pain score improved by 40% (p = 0.04) and the UDI-6 score by 26% (p = 0.05). On average, patients reported a 42% improvement in their symptoms. SF-36 scores did not improve significantly. In refractory patients, bilateral caudal epidural sacral neuromodulation is another possible mode of treatment, which appears to improve both pelvic pain and voiding symptoms.

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