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J Chir (Paris). 2007 Jul-Aug;144(4):278-86.

[Precancerous lesions of the gallbladder].

[Article in French]

Author information

  • 1Service de Chirurgie Générale et Digestive, Hôpital Louis Mourier AP-HP, Université Paris VII - Colombes. reza.kianmanesh@lmr.aphp.fr

Erratum in

  • J Chir (Paris). 2007 Nov-Dec;144(6):566.


This Mini-review summarizes the epidemiology, predisposing and pre-cancerous conditions related to carcinoma of the gallbladder. In 75% of cases, gallbladder cancer is a cholangiocarcinoma, usually presenting in a late and advanced stage, and it carries one of the worst prognoses of all GI malignancies. Early stage disease is usually discovered incidentally by the pathologist in a gallbladder specimen removed for calculous cholecystitis. It occurs three times more frequently in women than in men and invasive forms usually occur after the age of 60. Incidence varies with geographic location. Besides genetic and geographic factors, the presence of one or more large gallstones is a major risk factor. Gallbladder polyps larger than 1.5 cm. (especially solitary sessile hypoechogenic polyps) are associated with a 50% risk of malignancy. Choledochal cysts and other variations of the biliopancreatic junction are also associated with high risk; cancer may occur at a much younger age in these patients and in the absence of gallstones. Porcelain gallbladder is a risk factor, particularly when there is calcification of the gallbladder mucosa. Chronic gallbladder infection has been implicated as a risk factor for malignant degeneration. Finally, cancer of both the gallbladder and the bile ducts is more frequent in patients suffering from primary biliary cirrhosis.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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